A guide to using camera filters
You will find three most important classes of camera filters. Those for usage with black-and-white film manipulate how a various tones are recorded. Filters for color film may well be grey, pale-colored or colorless (such as a UV filter), or strongly colored to right faults that occur if the wrong sort of film is inside the camera. Then there are actually lots of special-effects filters which is usually employed with both color or black and white film and digital cameras.
Home-made diffuser By smearing petroleum jelly unevenly on a plain-glass lens filter, you are able to make the type of dreamy photographic effect. Don’t squeeze jelly on the lens! Professionally made soft-focus filters can also be purchased.
Camera filters explained
A circular filter is a disc of optical-quality glass or plastic that screws into the threaded front mount in the camera lens. Ensure that the filters you invest in are of the appropriate diameter on your SLR camera lens thread. Square filters, which slot into an external holder linked to the camera lens, are also an option. Interchangeable mounting rings allow the camera filters to be used with many different lenses.
With a few exceptions, all filters decrease the quantity of light reaching the film. For most cameras this does not matter, since the TTL (through-the-lens) metering method will register the reduced light level and raise exposure to compensate. On the other hand, this must be taken into consideration if using a hand-held exposure meter. Each filter carries a ‘filter factor’ indicating how much additional exposure is needed to make up for your light lost.
Digital camera filters
Most filters can by used successfully with digital cameras, even though occasionally the auto white balance program must be turned off. For digital photography, most camera filter effects are more quickly achieved with post-processing image manipulation software, such as Photoshop. The polariser and starburst are quite possibly the most valuable filters for a professional photographer.
Camera lens filters
The camera filters in this chart are the most commonly used in general photography. But there are plenty more specialty filters available in distinctive colors and strengths. You can use colored filters with color film, but you will develop a color cast according to the filter used. You can also multiple camera filters together to correct more then one element in the photo. In this instance, if you are not working with TTL metering you will need to multiply filter components to find the needed exposure boost measured in aperture stops.
Neutral density filters This Chart shows a selection on neutral density filters (ND filters). All ND filters are grey in color, and are appropriate to use with either color or black-and-white films and with digital cameras.
Their main use is for when you choose to select a very wide aperture, or perhaps a slow shutter speed, in lighting situations where this would not be possible without over-exposing the image. They enable you, for example, to make use of shutter speeds lasting multiple seconds in broad daylight. They do not impact how colors are recorded.
UV filter In mountain areas there is certainly typically a whole lot of UV light, producing a UV filter quite significant.
Polarizer filter This is an ideal filter for strengthening sky color or tone. It could be applied to reduce reflections on shiny surfaces, water and glass.
There are several different sorts of unique effects filters. Typical examples involve: prism, starburst, mist, graduated color, rainbow and clear centre spot. Use these filters sparingly, or your photography will become tiresome. Most of these effects can nowadays be added with digital image manipulation software.